With the advent of the Renaissance beginning in the 15th century,
human knowledge started to expand exponentially with the occurrence of two
profound events – one, an invention and the other, the genesis
of a revolution of ideas.
First, communication became far more universal with the invention of
movable type. Around 1450,
Johannes Gutenberg invented the
printing press and independently developed a movable type system in
Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a
matrix and hand mold. The more limited number of characters needed for European
languages was an important factor.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony.
Second, during this initial period of enlightenment,
the genesis of a profound intellectual event was taking the form of
challenging the established cause and effect beliefs of millennia past. This
event was the birth of the
Scientific Revolution based on the
method and "a posteriori" thinking that would replace, once and for all, the
"a priori" practice of
imagining (through speculation, pondering, conjecture and even meditation)
explanations of scientific cause and
effect events. Foremost among this emerging scientific revolution was the replacement of the
Aristotelian/Ptolemaic geocentric astronomical model with the
Aristarchus/Copernican/Kepler heliocentric model.
The results of this scientific revolution reverberates and resonates to this
day. Virtually all of the products and knowledge of modern day science
are a result of this amazing revolution.
Referred to by the author of this website, in describing the individuals
involved in this scientific revolution as the great scientific string
of pearls, this scientific revolution was launched by the individual mind of
Aristarchus as early as the 3rd century BCE and followed up and confirmed by Nicolaus Copernicus
in the 15th century, thus launching this great revolution. In addition, the ideas and concepts of Giordano
Bruno, Tycho Brahe, Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler all added to this
revolution in the 16th century.
This string of pearls finally
culminated with the first integration of the physical sciences by Isaac Newton in the
17th century, the second integration by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th
century and the third by Albert Einstein early in our own
20th century just past. For additional information and even a facial image
of these innovators, you are encouraged to visit the Physical Science
Slideshow by clicking here or by clicking on the heading (Physical
Science) in the first column of the diagram below.
As can be seen in the diagram
below, a third pathway – that of the Biological Sciences – is
included in the development of our journey to our intended goal of
establishing One World Of and By the People. It will be demonstrated shortly
how this pathway emerged, not recently, but accelerated
recently to include what this website author refers to as the first and
integrations of the Biological Sciences. These integrations only were made
possible through the understanding of the a priori cause and effect thinking
introduced through the great Scientific Revolution of the physical sciences.
The main innovators making the most profound contributions of both the
Biological and Social Sciences will be discussed in the immediately
following pages complete with slideshows of images and summary discussions
of the significance of their respective contributions.
- Crick & Watson
- Roslin Institute