With the advent of the Renaissance beginning in the 15th century, human knowledge started to expand exponentially with the occurrence of two profound events –  one, an invention and the other, the genesis of a revolution of ideas.

First, communication became far more universal with the invention of movable type. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press and independently developed a movable type system in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mold. The more limited number of characters needed for European languages was an important factor. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony.

Second, during this initial period of enlightenment, the genesis of a profound intellectual event was taking the form of challenging the established cause and effect beliefs of millennia past. This event was the birth of the Scientific Revolution based on the scientific method and "a posteriori" thinking that would replace, once and for all, the "a priori" practice of imagining (through speculation, pondering, conjecture and even meditation) explanations of scientific cause and effect events. Foremost among this emerging scientific revolution was the replacement of the Aristotelian/Ptolemaic geocentric  astronomical model with the Aristarchus/Copernican/Kepler heliocentric model. The results of this scientific revolution reverberates and resonates to this day. Virtually all of the products and knowledge of modern day science are a result of this amazing revolution.

Referred to by the author of this website, in describing the individuals involved in this scientific revolution as the great scientific string of pearls, this scientific revolution was launched by the individual mind of Aristarchus as early as the 3rd century BCE and followed up and confirmed by Nicolaus Copernicus in the 15th century, thus launching this great revolution. In addition, the ideas and concepts of Giordano Bruno, Tycho Brahe, Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler all added to this revolution in the 16th century.

This string of pearls finally culminated with the first integration of the physical sciences by Isaac Newton in the 17th century, the second integration by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century and the third by Albert Einstein early in our own 20th century just past. For additional information and even a facial image of these innovators, you are encouraged to visit the Physical Science Slideshow by clicking here or by clicking on the heading (Physical Science) in the first column of the diagram below.

 As can be seen in the diagram below, a third pathway – that of the Biological Sciences – is included in the development of our journey to our intended goal of establishing One World Of and By the People. It will be demonstrated shortly how this pathway emerged, not recently, but accelerated  recently to include what this website author refers to as the first and second  integrations of the Biological Sciences. These integrations only were made possible through the understanding of the a priori cause and effect thinking introduced through the great Scientific Revolution of the physical sciences.

The main innovators making the most profound contributions of both the Biological and Social Sciences will be discussed in the immediately following pages complete with slideshows of images and summary discussions of the significance of their respective contributions.


  • Aristarchus
  • Ptolemy
  • Copernicus
  • Brahe
  • Bruno
  • Galileo
  • Kepler
  • Leibniz
  • Newton
  • Maxwell
  • Einstein
  • Darwin
  • Wallace
  • Mendel
  • Crick & Watson
  • Roslin Institute
  • Antecedents
    • Spinoza
    • Locke
    • Voltaire
    • Paine
    • Mises
    • Heath
  • Galambos
  • Snelson

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